Creeper

Species Name: Strophitus undulatus

Image Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Strophitus_undulatus_-_Springfield_Science_Museum_-_Springfield,_MA_-_DSC03463.JPG
Image Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Strophitus_undulatus_-_Springfield_Science_Museum_-_Springfield,_MA_-_DSC03463.JPG

Species Distribution in Massachusetts

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Federal Rank: None

Massachusetts State Rank: Special Concern

Habitat Description

Small to large low-gradient river reaches with and gravel substrates and low to moderate water velocities.

Threats to Survival

Because they are essentially sedentary filter feeders, they cannot flee from degraded environments and are vulnerable to the anthropogenic alterations of waterways. Nutrient enrichment, sedimentation, point-source pollution, alteration of natural flow regimes, water withdrawal, encroachment of river corridors by development, non-native and invasive species, habitat fragmentation caused by dams and road-steam crossings and a legaxy of land use that has greatly altered the natural dynamics of river corridors.

Actions Recommended to Ensure Survival

Mitigate pollution, limit habitat degradation, maintain naturally variable river flow and limit water withdrawals, maintain adequate vegetated riparian buffer along rivers and lakes and protect or acquire land at high priority sites.